Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of enmetazobactam combined with cefepime in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model
Fabian Bernhard, Rajesh Odedra, Sylvie Sordello, Rossella Cardin, Samantha Franzoni, Cédric Charrier, Adam Belley, Peter Warn, Matthias Machacek, Philipp Knechtle
Third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are classified as critical priority pathogens, with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) as principal resistance determinants. Enmetazobactam (formerly AAI101) is a novel ESBL inhibitor developed in combination with cefepime for empiric treatment of serious Gram-negative infections in settings where ESBLs are prevalent. Cefepime-enmetazobactam has been investigated in a phase 3 trial in patients with complicated urinary tract infections or acute pyelonephritis. This study examined pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationships of enmetazobactam, in combination with cefepime, for ESBL-producing isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in 26-hour murine neutropenic thigh infection models. Enmetazobactam dose fractionation identified time above a free threshold concentration (fT > CT) as the PK-PD index predictive of efficacy. Nine ESBL-producing isolates of K. pneumoniae, resistant to cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam, were included in enmetazobactam dose-ranging studies. The isolates encoded CTX-M-type, SHV-12, DHA-1 and OXA-48 β-lactamases and covered a cefepime-enmetazobactam MIC range from 0.06 to 2 μg/ml. Enmetazobactam restored the efficacy of cefepime against all isolates tested. Sigmoid curve fitting across the combined set of isolates identified enmetazobactam PK-PD targets for stasis and for a 1-log10 bioburden reduction of 8% and 44% fT > 2 μg/ml, respectively, with a concomitant cefepime PK-PD target of 40 – 60% fT > cefepime-enmetazobactam MIC. These findings support clinical dose selection and breakpoint setting for cefepime-enmetazobactam.